The microbiome acts as instructor and arbiter of host immunity, while the immune system regulates colonization with healthy microbes. This bi-directional crosstalk can be regulated through nutrition to support a healthy microbiome and long-term immunity.
Breastfed babies have higher frequency of defecation and softer stools than bottle-fed babies
Breast milk is a dynamic solution which changes to match the evolving nutritional needs of developing babies. Lower protein intake in infancy may decrease the risk of being overweight or obese later in life.
Optimal timing and content of complementary feeding (CF) will support the development of healthy dietary patterns in infants, with subsequent beneficial effects on health outcomes in later life.
There are significant problems, for both mother and child, associated with over/under-weight mothers and infants who are small/large size at birth. Proper nutrition and healthcare for both mother and infant throughout pregnancy and the first few years of childhood are vital to give the infant the optimum health outcome possible.
Patterns formed in the earliest months of existence can shape the taste preferences of a lifetime. Early sensory experiences influence these patterns. Consumption of a healthy diet by a mother increases the likelihood that her child will prefer the same healthy foods.
Iron is hard to metabolize due to its poor solubility. It can have adverse health effects unless its levels in the body are maintained between adequate thresholds. Insufficient iron leads to anemia, while excessive iron causes oxidative damage in the body.